Hosta

Dictionary

 

 

 

<em>H</em>. 'Aristrcrat'

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [XYZ]


[A]

ALBESCENT – possessing leaves that begin yellow or more pigmented and become whiter as the season progresses; e.g., H. 'Gold Standard'.

ANTHER – the upper part of the stamen, male flower part, in a capsule-like structure that splits to release yellow pollen.

AP0MIXIS - asexual seed produced without the normal fusion of pollen and egg giving rise to seedlings genetically identical to the pod parent; e.g., H. ventricosa.

AXILLARY - coming from the joint of a leaf and the stem.

[B]

BACKCROSS – a cross of an F1 (hybrid seedling) to either parent that generated it.

BLOOM - 1. flower 2. waxy coating on a leaf, stem, or pod surface producing a dusty appearance.

BLOOM TIME - the time period between when the first flower of a stem or clump opens or is receptive to pollination and the last flower is open or receptive.

BRACT – the diminutive or leaf-like structures on the scape below each flower.

BREEDER – hybridizer of the cultivar.

[C]

CATAPHYLLS – the often purplish short leaf-like coverings over the pips when they first emerge.

CENTERED-OUT – the dying out of the middle portion of a clump; often called Fairy Ring.

CHIMERA – containing cells of two or more different tissues.

CHIMERAL REARRANGEMENT – changing position of different tissues; i.e., gold-margined hosta producing a gold-centered or all gold division.

CLONE - a group of genetically identical individual plants produced by asexual propagation.

CORDATE - having acute leaf point or apex, and flat to cordate leaf base; shaped like valentine heart.

COROLLA – collective set of petals and sepals, fused into tepals.

CORRUGATED – see RUGOUSE

CROSS (of two plants) – transfer of pollen from one plant onto the stigma of another; represented by x symbol: maternal (pod) parent x paternal (pollen) parent.

CROWN – the base of a plant where the roots and shoots join.

CULTIVAR - contraction word for "cultivated variety"; a plant that is clearly distinguished by identical physical characteristics and maintains these characteristics through clonal propagation

CUPPED – leaf blade having the center of the leaf lower than the margin, concave.

[D]

DIVISION – (in Hosta) a single shoot with roots attached.

DRAWSTRING EFFECT – leaf distortion caused by expansion of leaf blade interior with correspondingly lesser expansion of margin tissue; e.g. H. 'Lunar Eclipse'. Differs from cupping by distorted center.

DWARF – see MINIATURE. Obsolete term no longer used by The American Hosta Society.

[E]

EMERGED – having shoots above the ground.

EYE – undeveloped or dormant shoot; a dormant bud. Frequently used for any division.

[F]

F1 – the first filial generation. Generation resulting immediately from cross of first set of parents.

FASCIATED – flower stem composed of two or more stems growing in a fused bundle.

FEATHERS – small segments of a different color at the base of the leaf that do not reach the edge.

FERTILIZATION - 1. Application of nutrients; 2. union of egg and sperm.

FILAMENT – the long thin structure that holds the anther.

FLOWER STEM - the main stem of the inflorescence.

FOLDED - bent upward parallel to midrib, keel-shaped.

FURLED - having leaves with edges or sides curled or coiled in to the midrib; e.g. H. 'Stetson'.

[G]

GENOTYPE - The genetic makeup of a plant.

GENUS - taxonomic division of related species below family.

GIANT - leaf blade area greater than 144 sq. inches.

GLABROUS - smooth hairless leaf texture.

GLAUCOUS – a crystalline waxy coating (or bloom) with an airy structure producing a white to blue coloring over the plant parts.

[H]

HEART-SHAPED – see CORDATE. having an acute leaf point or apex, and a flat to cordate leaf base; shaped like a valentine heart.

HYBRID – seedling from two distinct genetically different parents.

[I]

INFLORESCENCE - the flowering part of a hosta including the raceme, peduncle, pedicel, and flower.

INFLORESCENCE LEAVES - the larger, occasionally flat, leaf-like structures on the flower stem.

INTRODUCE - initially distribute.

INTRODUCER - person or nursery that first distributes the cultivar.

[J]

JETTING – having margin variegation not uniform: irregularly extends into or toward leaf center; e.g. H. montana 'Aureomarginata', H. montana 'Choko Nishiki'.

JUVENILE – the pre-adult stages of a plant usually exemplified by more pointed, narrower leaves,fewer vein pairs, thinner marginal variegation, faster growth rate, and often  smaller leaf and clump size.

[K]

[L]

LANCE-SHAPED – having narrow pointed leaf tip, and leaf blade width less than one half the length of the blade.

LARGE – leaf blade area from 81 sq. inches to 144 sq. inches.

LEAF BLADE – the thin, usually flat part of leaf excluding the petiole.

LUTESCENT – possessing leaves which begin the season darker and become lighter or more yellow as the season progresses; not the result of bleaching due to poor nutrition or too much sun.

[M]

MACULATA – Latin term for spotted.

MATURE – a plant with general characteristics that do not change with continued aging.

MEDIO-VARIEGATED – leaf or leaves having a lighter center than the margin color.

MEDIUM – leaf blade area from 25 sq. inches to less than 81 sq. inches.

MELTING OUT - necrosis of the usually white or lighter-colored tissue.

MERISTEM - the region of rapidly expanding cells of one of the growing points of a plant that further differentiate to produce shoots, roots, and flowers.

MID-RIB – the center vein of a leaf.

MINIATURE - (aka MINI) -  leaf blade area less than 6 sq. inches.

MISTED – having small short segments of dark pigmented tissue on a lighter background.

MOTTLED - blotched spotting of leaf blade; e.g., H.'Cynthia'.

MUTATION – change in DNA of plant that can be transmitted through its sports and seedlings.

[N]

NECROSIS - the death or dying of cells, tissues, or whole plants.

NODE - the meristematic place on a stem where the leaf is attached.

[O]

OPEN POLLINATED - (aka OP)- progeny from open pollination.

OPEN POLLINATION - pollination without human assistance, i.e., by insects or wind.

ORIGINATOR - person or nursery who found or grew the cultivar.

ORIGINATOR STOCK - (aka OS)- divisions produced naturally from original plant; not tissue-culture propagated.

OVARY - the basal portion of the pistil where eggs are contained.

OVATE - leaves egg-shaped.

[P]

PANICLE - an inflorescence with the main axis branched; e.g., H. tibae.

PATTERN – leaf variegation.

PEDICEL - the structure attaching an individual flower to the flower stem.

PEDUNCLE – the main stem of the inflorescence; flower stem.

PETAL – see TEPAL

PETIOLE – leaf stalk.

PHENOTYPE - physical appearance of plant.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS – process in chloroplasts containing chlorophyll that creates carbohydrates using light energy, water and carbon dioxide.

PIECRUST – a consistent rippled or crimped appearance limited to the outer edge of a leaf.

PISTIL - the female part of the flower consisting of style, stigma, and ovary.

POD - developed ovary or fruit containing seeds.

POLLEN - powdery yellow substance inside anthers carrying male gametes.

POLLINATION - the transfer of pollen to a receptive stigma.

PROGENY – offspring from sexual reproduction. Sometimes used to reference non-sexual reproduction offspring (e.g., sports, mutations).

PRUINOSE – see GLAUCOUS

PUCKERING – see SEERSUCKERING

[Q]

[R]

RACEME - inflorescence with flowers attached individually to a main stem by pedicels.

REGISTRANT - person or nursery who registered cultivar.

REVERT – change of variegated sport back to its original solid colored parent.

RHIZOMATOUS – having long reaching underground horizontal stems; loosely spreading habit; e.g., H. clausa.

RUGOUSE – wrinkled: a gathering of leaf between veins giving leaf bubbled, dimpled, puckered, seersuckered, crinkled, or corrugated effect.

[S]

SELF (verb) – to pollinate a hosta using pollen of the same plant or its clone

SCAPE – the stem bearing the complete set of flowers for a single division.

SEEDLING – plant of seed origin.

SEERSUCKERING – see RUGOUSE

SELFING - the pollination of a clone by the same clone.

SHOOT – the stem and set of leaves of an individual division; the dormant set of leaves all enclosed in a single set of leaf scales.

SIBLINGS – seedlings from same parentage

SMALL – a plant with a leaf blade area from 6 sq. inches to less than 25 sq. inches.

SPECIES - taxonomic division (rank) of freely interbreeding populations of wild or naturally occurring individuals below rank of genus.

SPECKLED – small spotted irregular coloring.

SPORT – aka BUD SPORT – part of plant (offshoot or shoot) that deviates from rest of plant

STABLE - a plant that maintains its solid or variegated pattern when propagated by division.

STAMEN – the male flower parts consisting of the filament and the anther.

STIGMA – pollen-receptive female tip at end of style.

STOLONIFEROUS – see RHIZOMATOUS

STREAKED – having irregular leaf color of differently colored stripes ranging from short dashes to long striations spanning the leaf length.

STYLE – the long tube connecting the stigma with the ovary.

SUBSTANCE – characteristic of leaf comprising thickness, density and rigidity.

[T]

TEPAL - general term for the flower lobes

TEXTURE - the characteristics of the leaf surface to the eye.

TISSUE CULTURE - (aka TC) - growing plant fragments within nutrient medium to create clones of original plant.

TWISTED – leaf or scape rotated around itself producing askew condition.

[U]

UNDULATED – a course wave to the leaf blade; e.g., H.'Undulata'.

UNFURLED – the stage of leaf development when the blade is open and completely separated from the petiole.

UNSTABLE – not having true-to-type variegation in all divisions in a clump or not retaining true-to-type variegation from season to season.

[V]

VARIEGATED – leaf having more than one color due to a difference in pigment components.

VEIN PAIRS – the matched set of veins on opposite side of the center midrib.

VEINS – the prominent lines of connective tissue for carrying water and nutrients.

VIRIDESCENT - possessing of leaves which begin the season lighter colored and become more green as the season advances.

[W]

WAVY – see UNDULATED

WHITE-BACKED – having a glaucous underside; e.g., H. hypoleuca.

[XYZ]

For greater details, please see the following publications:

W. George Schmid, The Genus HOSTA / Giboshi zoku (Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc, 1991): 21-34, 357-364

Diana Grenfell & Michael Shadrack, The New Encyclopedia of Hostas (Portland Oregon: Timber Press, Inc, 2009): 443-444

Mark Zilis, The Hostapedia, An Encyclopedia of Hostas (Rochelle, Illinois: Q & Z Nursery, Inc, 2009): 31-37


 
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